Le chewing-gum est également à l’origine de migraines et de maux de têtes violents chez les enfants et les adolescents. A partir de cet échantillon, ils ont pu reconstituer le génome complet de l’individu ayant … Introduction Xylitol, a naturally occurring five-carbon polyol (sugar alcohol), is used in several products, including chewing gum, as a sugar substitute; it has been shown to have beneficial effects in the maintenance of oral health. Researchers have succeeded in extracting a complete human genome from a thousands-of-years old 'chewing gum.' Le traitement au phosphopeptide de caséine et au fluorure de phosphate de calcium amorphe enrichit le microbiome symbiotique de la plaque dentaire chez les enfants. Prosdocimi EM (1), Kistler JO (1), Moazzez R (2), Thabuis C (3), Perreau C (3), Wade WG (1). Effects - Helps to maintain the mineralisation of the teeth and to fight against dental plaque - Helps reduce dry mouth that causes bad breath - Contributes to the maintenance of normal dentition. Sources : draxe.com. COPENHAGEN, Denmark: Though its popularity and constituent ingredients have changed over time, chewing gum has been used by humans for thousands of years. Votre adresse de messagerie ne sera pas publiée. Clinical Oral Investigations, 2014. English. A new study out of Denmark that analysed a 5,700-year-old piece of chewing gum made from birch bark pitch has succeeded in extracting a complete human genome from the pitch, demonstrating its potential as a new source of … A. naeslundii HOT-176 and Actinomyces HOT-169 were significantly reduced following use of maltitol chewing gum in patients. Chewing gum could be a vector of bacterial diseases quite long after being thrown to the ground. Order Biocyte Microbiote Oral Care 8 Chewing Gums at the best price in a secure online pharmacy. Scientific American is part of Springer Nature, which owns or has commercial relations with thousands of scientific publications (many of them can be found at, Food-Industry-Backed Research Gives Results Funders Want, New Analysis Shows, New Scientist-Candidates for U.S. Congress Fared Worse Than Expected in 2020, U.S. Exits Paris Climate Accord after Trump Stalls Global Warming Action for Four Years. The ancient chewing gum acted as a time capsule, storing information about her oral microbiome, the bacteria that lived in her mouth, as well. Le nombre total de bactéries salivaires a été quantifié à l’aide d’un système de PCR quantitatif en temps réel. © 2021 Scientific American, a Division of Springer Nature America, Inc. Support our award-winning coverage of advances in science & technology. Español. Age “chewing gum” yields 5,700 year-old human genome and oral microbiome. We’ve found bacteria that can be used to clean the chewing gums – … microbiome; saliva; xylitol. Although they successfully identified 26 virulence factors, or molecules that make pathogens more effective at infecting hosts, they were unable to determine the woman’s health status. Although no human remains have been recovered at the dig site, the DNA on the birch tar revealed what the woman looked like, what she ate, what bacteria and viruses she carried with her, where her people could have come from and whether they may have begun to adopt farming. Sur le morceau de chewing-gum fossilisé, les chercheurs ont aussi identifié plusieurs bactéries et virus. The bacterial populations that colonize a person’s teeth are very different from those found in their saliva or on their tongue, and so a sample pulled from chewing gum “is probably a mixture of all these different types of oral microbiome,” Weyrich says. Some other oral bacteria discovered indicates the woman may have suffered from periodontal disease. Fortunately, no one has yet tried to coin the word gumomics. Italiano . Effet du fluorure de diammine d’argent et du verre ionomère sur la reminéralisation des caries dentinaires naturelles, La justification de la supplémentation en sélénium dans les maladies inflammatoires de l’intestin, Association entre l’état de santé bucco-dentaire et l’apport alimentaire futur et la qualité de l’alimentation chez les hommes âgés, le fer peut ne pas améliorer la fertilité, Dangers transmissibles par l’alimentation, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30429438-effects-of-xylitol-containing-chewing-gum-on-the-oral-microbiota, Journal of Nutrition and Intermediary Metabolism. Euro (EUR) Franc suisse (CHF) Pound (GBP) South Korean won (KRW) US Dollar (USD) Yen (JPY) Yuan (CNY) English. Nederlands. Ancient “Chewing Gum” Reveals a 5,700-Year-Old Microbiome. Post-meal gum chewing can stimulate the release of bile, digestive enzymes, and acids, all components needed to properly digest foods, and may help avoid indigestion after a large meal. À l’inverse, aucune différence significative n’a été observée dans la composition globale du microbiote salivaire entre les échantillons de référence et de suivi des deux groupes. In any case, when she discarded the tar, it was sealed away under layers of sand and silt for some 5,700 years until a team of archaeologists found it. Des échantillons de salive stimulés de base et de suivi ont été collectés et la composition microbienne salivaire a été évaluée à l’aide de l’analyse de séquençage de nouvelle génération du gène ARNr 16S. Le chewing-gum fossilisé a été retrouvé par des archéologues à Syltholm (Danemark), avant d’être analysé. Après les repas, votre estomac doit bénéficier d’une période de repos pour digérer les aliments, mais la mastication et l’ingestion continue de salive interfèrent avec ce repos. It’s a new untapped source of ancient DNA, according to the researchers . Saliva samples were collected at baseline and from 0 to 2, 2 to 5, 5 to 10, 10 to 15, and … Le chewing-gum pourrait être un vecteur de maladies bactériennes assez longtemps après avoir été jeté au sol. Explore our digital archive back to 1845, including articles by more than 150 Nobel Prize winners. Experts of the University of Copenhagen have been able to extract a complete human genome from a “chewing gum” which is thousands of years old. Et l’analyse des restes du microbiome oral préservés dans ce vieux chewing-gum a pu offrir un instantané de sa vie. » L'expert ajoute que «le chewing-gum a une charge bactérienne qui évolue d'un microbiome oral à un microbiome environnemental en quelques semaines. Toward the end of the Stone Age, in a small fishing village in southern Denmark, a dark-skinned woman with brown hair and piercing blue eyes chewed on a sticky piece of hardened birch tar. Dans cette étude interventionnelle, un essai contrôlé randomisé a été utilisé pour évaluer les effets à court terme du Chewing gum can aid in soothing acid reflux. The researchers also discovered the woman carried Epstein-Barr virus—a very common member of the herpesvirus family—and several strains of virus responsible for pneumonia. Behind them, the woman and her kin built weirs to trap fish that they skewered with bone-tipped spears. Votre adresse de messagerie ne sera pas publiée. Gum can also cause bloating if you swallow air while chewing. She was descended from a genetic group archaeologists refer to as Western hunter-gatherers, who began settling in Scandinavia via a southern route as early as 11,700 years ago. Farming spread to Denmark relatively late—arriving around the time the Syltholm woman lived—but once there, it probably caught on quickly. According to Schroeder and his colleagues, the Syltholm woman’s genome indicates she was not related to communities of farmers that did live in Denmark around the same time. Search. Researchers were able to detect traces of DNA that revealed pathogens, including potential Epstein-Barr virus, one of the most common human viruses that can serve as the gateway to mononucleosis, also known as glandular fever. Effect of maltitol-containing chewing gum use on the composition of dental plaque microbiota in subjects with active dental caries. But it doesn’t stop there. The Syltholm birch tar sample—along with the genomic information concealed in it—was likely so well-preserved because it was buried in an oxygen-free environment, says Natalija Kashuba, an archaeologist at Uppsala University in Sweden and lead author of the paper published in May. The results, published Tuesday in Nature Communications, highlight the potential of chewed birch pitch as a source of ancient human and microbial DNA, which can be used to shed light on the population histories, health statuses and subsistence strategies of ancient people. Laura Weyrich, a paleomicrobiologist at Pennsylvania State University, who was not involved in either study, says it is difficult to draw broad conclusions about the Syltholm woman’s diet—or even the exact composition of her oral microbiome—from a piece of chewed gum. Russian. Currency : EUR. A new study out of Denmark that analysed a 5,700-year-old piece of chewing gum made from birch bark pitch has succeeded in extracting a complete human genome from the pitch, demonstrating its potential as a new source of ancient DNA. C’est une question qui se pose après avoir lu le travail de chercheurs danois sur un bout de résine de bouleau mâchée vieux de 5700 ans. Ces résultats indiquent que le chewing-gum contenant du xylitol inhibe l’augmentation du nombre total de bactéries salivaires sur une courte période pendant laquelle la composition microbienne salivaire n’est pas affectée. Ancient “Chewing Gum” Reveals a 5,700-Year-Old Microbiome. “For studies of human health and environment, this type of material is just priceless,” she says. Et si ce chewing-gum abandonné sous une chaise, plus qu’un signe de négligence crasse, était un don de patrimoine biologique à destination des futures générations de généticiens? Furthermore, … Chewing gum manufacturers have been turning to an ingredient called titanium dioxide for years. 中文. “It’s very difficult to put that microbiome into context without further analysis of other hunter-gatherers.”. pixabay.com This is probably the scariest reason to avoid gum. Toward the end of the Stone Age, in a small fishing village in southern Denmark, a dark-skinned woman with brown  hair and piercing blue eyes chewed on a sticky piece of hardened birch tar. “I think the ancient DNA field, moving forward, has a lot to offer in human genome–human microbiome coevolution,” Weyrich says. Lorsque vous mâchouillez un chewing-gum, vous y laissez un peu de votre salive. Other oral bacteria species the team found in the gum can cause periodontal disease. La mastication continue de chewing-gum peut entraîner une augmentation du niveau de stress pour l’estomac et les intestins. Twenty healthy young adults were randomly instructed to chew either PE gum or placebo gum. Could gum help prevent cavities in the same way as tooth brushing or flossing? Schroeder and his colleagues identified a host of microbial taxa from the sample, some of which were part of the community of microbes that live, often harmlessly, in and on humans called the microbiome. Chewing gum has been suggested to have many cognitive benefits such as increasing focus and alertness, improving memory, and controlling, besides its obvious benefit of making breath smell minty fresh. Et c’est aujourd’hui un « chewing-gum » vieux de 5.700 ans que des chercheurs ont analysé. Baseline and follow-up stimulated saliva samples were collected and the salivary microbial composition was assessed using the 16S rRNA gene next-generation sequencing analysis. Co-lead study author Theis Jensen, a bioarchaeologist at the University of Copenhagen, initially hit upon the idea of extracting genomic data from birch while he was working at a different dig site in Sweden and began to see pieces of tar with teeth imprints in them. Menu. Il existe encore des fabricants de chewing-gum qui utilisent de vrais ingrédients, à l’ancienne mais ils sont parfois plus difficiles à trouver. Archaeologists reconstructed a Neolithic woman’s complete genome and oral microbiome … (1) Institut GFK. At the time, “next-generation sequencing was starting to revolutionize ancient DNA studies,” he says. Or she might have simply been enjoying what amounted to Neolithic chewing gum. Sugar-free chewing gum is often sweetened by polyol sugars such as xylitol, sorbitol, maltitol, and erythritol (Livesey, 2003). (They changed again during the industrial revolution, when refined sugars and vegetable oils came to dominate the menu.) Though its popularity and constituent ingredients have changed over time, chewing gum has been used by humans for thousands of years. bioRxiv. Chewing gum can negatively impact gut bacteria, as I’ll discuss below. When researchers from the University of Copenhagen analysed a 5,700-year-old piece of chewing gum made from birch bark pitch, they succeeded in extracting a complete human genome from the pitch. Stone Age “Chewing Gum” Yields 5,700-year-old Human Genome and Oral Microbiome Thousands of years ago in what is now Denmark a young Neolithic woman chewed on a birch pitch.DNA analysis of this prehistoric “chewing gum” has now revealed, in remarkable detail, what she looked like. La lumière du soleil est-elle suffisante pour un statut suffisant en vitamine D chez les enfants et les adolescents? Archaeologists reconstructed a Neolithic woman’s complete genome and oral microbiome from a piece of birch tar she chewed. Written by TE in Global, Nature. Kashuba, who was not involved in the new study, says that if archaeologists recover more ancient-microbiome samples, they could begin to piece together the evolutionary history of bacteria and viruses that are connected to human health. Chewing gum has also been shown to have beneficial effects in the prevention of dental caries by increasing the flow of saliva (Dodds, 2012). Microbiome Discovered in the Syltholm Tar The sample found at Syltholm by Schroeder and his team revealed that the woman who chewed the tar was a carrier of microbiome, which are microbes that live in and on humans without doing any harm. Delivery all over the world. Português PT. Ancient “Chewing Gum” Reveals a 5,700-Year-Old Microbiome December 17, 2019 102 Toward the end of the Stone Age, in a small fishing village in southern Denmark, a dark-skinned woman with brown hair and piercing blue eyes chewed on a sticky piece of hardened birch tar. S t on e A ge “ch ew in g gu m ” yield s 5,700 year­ old h u m an gen om e an d oral m icrob iom e اللغة العربية. “We have this inconspicuous little lump of birch pitch that someone discarded thousands of years ago, and suddenly we’re able to conjure up this person from it,” says Hannes Schroeder, an archaeologist at the University of Copenhagen and the paper’s corresponding author. According to the researchers, it is a new untapped source of ancient DNA. Archaeologists, however, do not yet know whether hunter-gatherers in the region independently adopted farming or if new arrivals brought it with them. Now used in nanoparticle form, this extremely tiny metal compound is posing some serious emerging health threats. Stone Age “chewing gum” yields 5,700-year-old human genome and oral microbiome. The village, dubbed Syltholm by modern archaeologists, was near a coastal lagoon that was protected from the Baltic Sea by sandy barrier islands. Français. Effects of short-term xylitol gum chewing on the oral microbiome. 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