At the end of November, the situation on the front calmed, as the Soviets needed to replenish their forces. The lengthy German defence during the Battle of Narva denied the Soviets the use of Estonia as a favorable base for amphibious invasions and air attacks against Helsinki and other Finnish cities. August 1914 zwischen deutschen und russischen Armeen statt. A Swedish relief army under Charles XII of Sweden defeated a Russian siege force three to four times its size. By the end of the year, the 7th Red Army controlled Estonia along the front line 34 kilometers east of Tallinn, west from Tartu and south of Ainaži.[3]. (Davies, p. 39), Among the aims of the Bolsheviks was to drive through eastern and central Europe and support the Revolutions in Germany and Austria-Hungary. The Estonian army also remained to support the defence of Latvia against Soviets by defending the front north of Lake Lubāns. With weapons provided by Britain and France and operational support by the Estonian Army and the Royal Navy, the White Russian Northwestern Army began Offensive White Sword on 28 September 1919 with the aim of capturing Petrograd. But the 7th Red Army received reinforcements and counterattacked, pushing the White Russians back, until the front was stabilised with the support from the Estonian 1st Division on the Luga and Saba rivers. The Germans disrupted the organization of Latvian national forces, and on 16 April 1919 the Provisional Government was toppled and replaced with the pro-German puppet Provisional Government of Latvia led by Andrievs Niedra. On 5 June the Estonian Commune was abolished. Heavy battles occurred in and around Narva in World War II. In South Estonia the Estonian commando-type Tartumaa Partisan Battalion drove the Red Latvian rifle regiments out of Valga on 31 January. He reorganized the forces by setting up the 2nd Division in Southern Estonia under the command of Colonel Viktor Puskar, along with commando units, such as the Tartumaa Partisan Battalion and the Kalevi Malev Battalion. The Estonian High Command decided to push their defense lines across the border into Russia in support of the White Russian Northern Corps. The Battle of Narva took place from February 2, 1944 - August 10, 1944. 405 defending the city of Narva on 22 November 1918. Although the orders for the "Target Vistula" operation were never withdrawn, the Soviet plans were soon made obsolete by growing Polish resistance and eventually by the Polish counter-offensive in April. [28] But 3rd Division could not support advance of 2nd division anymore as it was now facing a new enemy: the Baltische Landeswehr. battle: Part of: Estonian War of Independence, Battle of Narva: Location: Narva, Narva City, Ida-Viru County, Estonia : Point in time: 28 November 1918 405 of the German Army. [6] The Soviet offensive came to a halt by late February and it became apparent that the Red Army would not break through the Polish lines by half-hearted attacks. The 6th Red Division captured the railway junction of Tapa from the freshly formed Estonian 4th and 5th Regiments on Christmas Eve and advanced to 34 km (21 mi) from the capital Tallinn . At that time, the 3rd Estonian Division, including the 2nd Latvian Cēsis regiment under Colonel Krišjānis Berķis, had 5990 infantry and 125 cavalry. Finnish volunteers returned to Finland on March–April 1919, having lost 150 men. The so-called 'Estonian' Red Army captured Alūksne, Setomaa, Vastseliina, and Räpina parishes by 15 March. November 1700greg. Finland also sent 3500 volunteers. On 1 January 1919, the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia (SSRB) was proclaimed in Smolensk. The newly formed Estonian Red Army gained the Setomaa, Vastseliina and Räpina Parishes by 15 March. The areas abandoned by the Central Powers became a field of conflict between local puppet governments created by Germany as part of its plans, local nationalist governments that sprung up after the withdrawal of the German forces, Poland, and the Bolsheviks wanting to incorporate these areas into Soviet Russia. Excellent photos! [39] The British contributed 88 ships to the Baltic campaign, of which 16 were sunk. [citation needed], The Estonian and Polish armies proved to be far more capable opponents than the Red Army had assumed. [43] However, the British squadron delivered 6500 rifles, 200 machine guns, 2 field guns, also two Soviet destroyers were captured near Tallinn and turned over to Estonia. The Estonian Army stopped the 7th Red Army's advance along the entire front on 2–5 January. Finally, the first Polish-Soviet clashes happened in mid-February, in the area of the towns of Bereza Kartuska and Mosty, where both armies clashed in a series of skirmishes. The 6th Red Rifle Division attacked with 7,000 infantry, 22 field guns, 111 machine guns, an armored train, two armored vehicles, two airplanes, and the Bogatyr class cruiser Oleg supported by two destroyers. The famous battle of Tannenberg (1914) which saved Eastprussia.Taken from this documentary series: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0481303/ A Swedish relief army under Charles XII of Sweden defeated a Russian siege force three to four times its size. The Soviet westward offensive of 1918–1919 was part of the campaign by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic into areas abandoned by the Ober Ost garrisons that were being withdrawn to Germany following that country's defeat in World War I. On 25 April, the Latvian Riflemen captured Rūjiena, but were soon pushed back by the 3rd Division to Salacgrīva-Seda-Gauja line. Connect via social media. [16], On 5–7 April 1919 the Estonian Constituent Assembly was elected. At this time, the new Estonian government was weak and desperate, and the Estonian Prime Minister even asked that his state be declared a British protectorate, but Britain would not meet this plea. This contrasts with the Baltische Landeswehr in Latvia.[3]. [7] The Soviet did not accept the union and tried to retake the region by force. On 25 April 1919, Hungarian Communists offered to mediate a settlement between the Bolsheviks and the Estonians, but Admiral Cowan threatened withdrawal of support to the Estonians unless they rejected the Hungarian offer. To this end, the Soviets established what was referred to as the new 'Estonian' Red Army. Having received reinforcements, the Estonian 2nd Division counterattacked and regained Petseri by 29 March. The first clashes demonstrated that the VI Reserve Corps was stronger and better equipped than the Soviets. In Belarus, the Belarusian People's Republic was conquered and the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia proclaimed. The North Latvian Brigade under the command of Jorģis Zemitāns was formed from the citizens of Latvia who had fled to Estonia. This turn of events was swiftly followed by the liberation of the sizable town of Rakvere on 12 January. The Northwestern Army approached to within 16 kilometres (10 mi) of the city, but the 7th Red Army repulsed the White Russian troops, driving them back into Estonia.[5]. Upon receiving the news about the German Revolution, on November 13, 1918, the Soviet government annulled the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and issued orders to the Red Army to move in the direction of Belarus, Ukraine and the Baltic States in order to establish Soviet governments there. The German authorities recognized neither the provisional government nor its claim for Estonia's independence, counting them as a self-styled group usurping sovereign rights of the Baltic nobility. [27], The war against the Baltische Landeswehr broke out on the southern front in Latvia on 5 June 1919. This move, in the general direction of Belarus, Ukraine and Poland (parts of the latter within Imperial Russia were referred to as "Privislinsky Krai" ), according to N. Davies, was code-named "Target-Vistula". The terms of the treaty stated that Russia renounced in perpetuity all rights to the territory of Estonia. [13] The second half of February saw the Estonian southward advance capture Salacgrīva and Alūksne. At the same time Polish and Belarusian self-defence units sprung up across western Belarus. Footage of fighting on the Narva Front, early 1944. Battle of Narva (1918), between Estonia and Soviet Russia, starting event of Estonian War of Independence Battle of Narva (1919) could mean 3 different clashes: between Estonian-Finnish forces and Soviet Russia on 18 - 19 January This video is inspierd by the events of the great northern war, so it's not a documentary. It resulted in a victory for the newly established state and was concluded in the Treaty of Tartu. The campaign was the struggle of Estonia for its sovereignty in the aftermath of World War I. Also on Christmas Eve, the 6th Red Rifle Division captured the Tapa railway junction, advancing to within 34 kilometers of the nation's capital Tallinn. This term, however, is mostly absent in Polish and, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, "Boganmeldelse: For Dannebrogs Ære - Danske frivillige i Estlands og Letlands frihedskamp 1919 af Niels Jensen", Sino-Russian border conflicts (1652–1689), Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940), Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Soviet_westward_offensive_of_1918–19&oldid=997536317, Battles of the Estonian War of Independence, Articles with Polish-language sources (pl), Articles needing additional references from May 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2016, Articles that may contain original research from May 2017, All articles that may contain original research, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Pilsudski, Jozef, "Year 1920 and its climax Battle of Warsaw during the Polish Soviet war 1919-1920", 1972. Everybody should get a copy.Thanks mr. Denton.Excellent work. Subsequently, the northeastern front stabilized along the Narva River. Ill-equipped and composed mostly of local recruits, they were determined to defend their homes from what the newspapers described as a "Red menace". On 31 May, an Estonian cavalry regiment led by Gustav Jonson reached Gulbene, capturing large amount of rolling stock, including 2 armoured trains. In the Battle of Paju, the Tartumaa Partisan Battalion and the Finnish volunteers drove the Latvian Riflemen out of Valga on 31 January. [34] The Russians then publicly broached the subject of peace talks in a radio broadcast on 27 and 28 April. Demoralised officers and mutinous soldiers abandoned their garrisons en masse and returned home. The Northern Corps mobilised members of the local population in the Pskov region. Colonel Johan Laidoner was appointed Commander in chief of the Estonian armed forces. Intensive German attacks on Estonian positions continued up to 22 June, without achieving a breakthrough. [11] The strengthened Estonian Army stopped the 7th Red Army's advance in its tracks between 2 and 5 January 1919 and went on the counter-offensive on 7 January. In positions along the Narva River the Estonian 1st Division and their allied White Russian Northern Corps repelled the 7th Red Army's attacks. Before, Charles XII had … [13] The Red Army heavily bombarded Narva, leaving about 2,000 people homeless yet ultimately failed to capture the city. It was fought in connection with the Russian Civil War during 1918–1920. 405 defending the city of Narva on 22 November 1918. On February 12 that goal was updated to include the Bug river. On 16 February the Red army started a counteroffensive to recapture Estonia. On 4 June the assembly adopted a temporary Constitution of Estonia. In the resulting fighting near Narva, the Swedes routed the enemy. Die Schlacht von Narva im Großen Nordischen Krieg wurde am 19.jul./ 20.schwed./ 30. The figures underline the severity of the battles - From January through March, AOK 18 suffered losses equal almost to a third of all those it had suffered through the first 2 1/2 years of the campaign. In April, the company was sent to the Southern front and took part of the battles near Pechory. 405 deployed in the defence of the border town of Narva. [13] A few days later White Russian forces arrived in Pskov, but as they were unable to defend the town on their own, some Estonian forces remained in Pskov, while the rest were pulled back to the state border. Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian and even Cossack national governments were formed. On 23 June, the Estonian 3rd Division counterattacked, recapturing Cēsis. [20] In March 1919, an agreement was signed with the Ingrian National People's Committee for the formation of an Ingrian battalion. This sizable force consisted upwards of 80,000 conscripts. Narva was the starting point for the Estonian War of Independence in November 1918. Narvawas not followed by further advances of the Swedish army into Russia; instea… Danish-Baltic Auxiliary Corps with approximately 200 men was formed under the command of Captain Richard Gustav Borgelin in April 1919. A subsequent broadcast by the Russians on 21 July led to the British journalist Arthur Ransome sounding out the Commissar for Foreign Relations Georgy Chicherin on the subject of peace talks. Stavka's hopes of assaulting Finland from Estonia and forcing it into capitulation were diminished. The Gdov and Yamburg Detachments of the 7th Red Army attacked the German Infanterie-Regiment Nr. The newly formed Red Army was growing in personnel, and Vladimir Lenin could gather enough strength to replace withdrawing Western curtain forces ("Западная завеса") by solid military and re-take the lands lost by Russia in 1917 by simply following the withdrawing German army. On 18 February, an agreement was signed between Estonia and Latvia, which allowed formation of Latvian forces under Estonian command but using them only on the southern front. Hence, as Leon Trotsky remarked, the revolution should be "brought on the bayonets" (of the Red Army), as "through Kiev leads the straight route for uniting with the Austro-Hungarian revolution, just as through Pskov and Vilnius goes the way for uniting with the German revolution. The real intent of the VI Reserve Corps was to annex Estonia into a German-dominated puppet state. Offensive on the west front, offensive on the south front, offensive on the all revolutionary fronts!". The Soviet 2nd Novgorod Division opened a second front south of Lake Peipus, with 7,000 infantry, 12 field guns, 50 machine guns, two armored trains, and three armored vehicles. The Soviet breakthrough in Belorussia made the German Army Group North withdraw a large portion of their troops from Narva to the central part of the Eastern Front and to Finland. [40] On 16 December, the situation became critical as forward units of the 15th Red Army crossed the Narva River. The first part was fought in January and February of 1944. The entire region abandoned by the German forces became a gigantic free-for-all theatre, where dozens of factions competed for power. The Battle of Narva was a military campaign between the German Army Detachment "Narwa" and the Soviet Leningrad Front fought for possession of the strategically important Narva Isthmus on 2 February – 10 August 1944 during World War II. This first period of independence was extremely short-lived, as the German troops entered Tallinn the following day. The Russians also attacked in order to support Communist Hungary, who also had a war with Romania. fantastic! The Estonians accepted on 4 September, and delegations started talks on 16 September. The 6th Red Division captured the railway junction of Tapa from the freshly formed Estonian 4th and 5th Regiments on Christmas Eve and advanced to 34 km (21 mi) from the capital Tallinn. It was to no avail, as the region was successfully defended against Bolshevik attacks. However, the German defeat on the Western Front and the internal dissolution of Austria-Hungary made the plans for creation of Mitteleuropa obsolete. [22] The offensive was supported along the Gulf of Finland's coast by the British and Estonian navy and marines. The initially successful offensive against the Republic of Estonia ignited the Estonian War of Independence which ended with the Soviet recognition of Estonia. 405 withdrew westwards. The best known comprehensive historical analysis of the campaign against Poland was performed by Norman Davies in his book White Eagle, Red Star (1972). Estonian military forces at the time consisted of 2,000 men with light weapons and about 14,500 poorly armed men in the Estonian Defence League. The Reds captured Narva on 29 November and the Infanterie-Regiment Nr. The Latvian democrats led by Kārlis Ulmanis had declared independence as in Estonia but were soon pushed back to Liepāja by Soviet forces, where the German VI Reserve Corps finally stopped their advance. He recruited 600 officers and 11,000 volunteers by 23 December 1918. [7] After repeated attacks, the 7th Red Army managed to achieve some limited success. In late November 1918, Soviet forces moved against Estonia. The Red army attempted to create a bridgehead across the Narva river, but were stopped and pushed back by the German. [24][25] Offensive destroyed the Estonian Red Army, captured Pskov on 25 May and cleared the territory between Estonia and the Velikaya River of Soviet forces. In Ukraine the situation was even more complex, with an ongoing conflict between Nestor Makhno's anarchists, communists, the White Movement, various governments of Ukraine and the reborn Polish Army. After signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Bolshevik Russia lost the European lands it annexed in the 18th and 19th centuries. The squadron captured two Russian destroyers, Spartak and Avtroil, and turned them over to Estonia, which renamed them Vambola and Lennuk. As a result, the Soviet government made a formal offer for negotiations on 31 August 1919. The 7th Red Army was routed outside the boundaries of contemporary Estonia and the battle-front continued outwards into the ancient, historical Estonian settlement area. After suffering 35,000 casualties in heavy battles, the Red Army was completely exhausted by the end of December. This included its lovely Baroque Old Town, which was levelled in March 1944 by Soviet planes. The British squadron delivered 6500 rifles, 200 machine guns, 2 field guns, also two Soviet destroyers were captured near Tallinn and turned over to Estonia. On 19 June 1919, the Estonian Commander-in-Chief General Johan Laidoner rescinded his command over the White Russians, and they were renamed the Northwestern Army. R. G. Borgelin was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and given Maidla manor in gratitude for his services. Russia retained control of the city until 19 January 1919. The concept was developed in 1918 but officially published under that name first in 1920 (Wojennaja Mysl i Riewolucija, 3/1920, Mikhail Tukhachevsky.[4]. zwischen den Truppen des schwedischen Königs Karl XII. [29] This was possible because the terms of their armistice with the Western Allies obliged the Germans to maintain their armies in the East to counter the Bolshevist threat. A few months later, using the interval between the Red Army's retreat and the arrival of the Imperial German Army, the Salvation Committee of the Estonian National Council Maapäev issued the Estonian Declaration of Independence in Tallinn on 24 February 1918[9] and formed the Estonian Provisional Government. An early battle of the Great Northern War, Narva saw a smaller Swedish army under King Charles XII attack during a blizzard. Among the several war memorials just outside town on the road to Narva-Jőesuu, the most striking is the Soviet T-34 tank, which was pulled from the river and set up in 1970 as a memorial to the victims of World War Two. On 2 February 1920, the Peace Treaty of Tartu was signed by the Republic of Estonia and RSFSR. Die Schlacht bei Tannenberg war eine Schlacht des Ersten Weltkrieges und fand in der Gegend südlich von Allenstein in Ostpreußen vom 26. [21], Although the Estonian Army had attained control over its country, the opposing Red armies were still active. War between Estonia and Soviet Russia in 1918–1920, Estonian elections and formation of foreign units, Операция "Белый меч" /28 сентября – 23 октября 1919 года/ Белая гвардия website, Timeline of the Estonian War of Independence, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Commemorative Medal for the Estonian War of Independence, "Kaitsevägi mälestab Vabadussõjas langenuid - Kaitsevägi", Estonian Declaration of Independence 24 February 1918, "Goltz, Rüdiger von der, Count (1865-1946)", "Krasnaja Gorka Operation 13 October – 9 November 1919 (Baltic Military History Newsletter)", Sino-Russian border conflicts (1652–1689), Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940), Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Estonian_War_of_Independence&oldid=996994525, Articles containing Estonian-language text, Articles needing additional references from January 2017, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 14:51. On January 12 Soviet High Command declared the goal of its "Target Vistula" operation: deep scouting towards the Neman River. [13] Distrustful of the White Russians, the Estonian High Command disarmed and interned the remains of the Northwestern Army that retreated behind the state border. The Estonian 2nd Division counterattacked and regained Petseri by 28 March. The Swedish volunteer unit under the command of Carl Mothander was formed in Sweden in early 1919. [15] At Võru, the situation became critical on 22 April when the Red Army approached to within 1.5 km of the town. On 19 June, fighting resumed with an assault of the Iron Division on positions of the Estonian 3rd Division near Limbaži and Straupe, starting the Battle of Cēsis. The Northwestern Army approached to 16 kilometres (10 miles) from Petrograd, but the Red Army repulsed the White Russian troops back to the Narva River. Foreign assistance, mostly from the United Kingdom and Finland, played a very important role during the early stages of war. With the arms provided by Britain and France, and the operational support by the Estonian Army, Estonian Navy, and Royal Navy, the Northwestern Army began the offensive on 28 September 1919. The provisional government retired, and a new government headed by Otto Strandman was formed. Open conflict seemed inevitable. The United Kingdom remained Estonia's main supplier of arms and equipment during the war. [26], Simultaneously with the Pskov offensive Estonian 2nd and 3rd divisions also started southward offensive into Northern-Latvia. On 16 November the provisional government called for voluntary mobilization and began to organize the Estonian Army, with Konstantin Päts as Minister of War, Major General Andres Larka as the chief of staff, and Major General Aleksander Tõnisson as commander of the Estonian Army, initially consisting of one division. In liberating Narva, a 1,000-strong Finnish-Estonian force landed at Utria to the rear of the Soviet 6th Rifle Division on 17 January. This German force, led by general Rüdiger von der Goltz, consisted of the Baltische Landeswehr formed from Baltic Germans, the Guards Reserve Division of former Imperial German Army soldiers who had stayed in Latvia, and the Freikorps Iron Division of volunteers motivated by prospects of acquiring properties in the Baltics. Show on map Comments. The battle took place in two parts. [36] Estonia supported the Northwestern Army due to the demands of the Entente. On 10 June, with Entente mediation, a ceasefire was made. The Estonian high command actively reinforced the 1st Division at Narva during the battles, sending in the headquarters of the 3rd Division. In May, the company was disbanded with some volunteers joining other units and the rest returning to Sweden. [32] The following day, the Baltische Landeswehr captured Cēsis. 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