They spurred social protest in June but dampened it in October, when the threat of Soviet invasion against Gomułka and his supporters transformed the social image of Polish communists. Nonetheless, the era of Stalinism in Poland had ended. The workers rioted to protest shortages of food and consumer goods, bad housing, the decline in real income, trade relations with the Soviet Union and the poor management of the economy. In the next several months—despite a series of internal party disputes, a visit by Nikita Khrushchev and a Soviet delegation to Warsaw (October 19–20, 1956), and the threat of a Soviet invasion of Poland—the Central Committee elected Gomułka first secretary of the party (October 21, 1956). Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. "Soviet Leaders Rush to Poland to Demand Pro-Moscow Regime; Said to Post Troops at Warsaw". [7], Gomulka's pledge to follow a "Polish road to socialism" more in harmony with national traditions and preferences caused many Poles to interpret the dramatic confrontation of 1956 as a sign that the end of the dictatorship was in sight. Khrushchev's speech worked against him. The Polish Crisis 1956. Some social scientists term it the Polish October Revolution, which was less dramatic than the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 but may have had an even deeper impact on the Eastern Bloc and on the Soviet Union's relationship to its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe. [4][7][8], The PZPR Secretariat decided that Khrushchev's speech should have wide circulation in Poland, a unique decision in the Eastern Bloc. After the death of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin (March 1953), the rigidly authoritarian communist regime in Poland relaxed some of its policies. [2], For the People's Republic of Poland, 1956 was a year of transition. The demonstrations were suppressed but they did afford reformist Communists the opportunity to advance an agenda that included significant concessions to … In June 1956, workers in the Polish city of Poznan demonstrated against cuts in wages and the insensitivity of local authorities to their grievances. Gomułka, who believed in a “Polish road to socialism,” became a candidate for the leadership of the party. The revelations may even have contributed to the Polish uprising in June 1956 and the Hungarian revolution of October 1956. A large demonstration in Budapest, which called in support of the Polish reformers, and escalated out of control For Poland, that meant a temporary liberalisation, but eventually, hopes for a full liberalisation were proven false, as Gomułka's regime gradually became more oppressive. Europe Poland marks 50 years since 1968 anti-Semitic purge. Bierut's successors seized on Khrushchev's condemnation of Stalinist policy as a perfect opportunity to prove their reformist democratic credentials and their willingness to break with the Stalinist legacy. Soviets put a brutal end to Hungarian revolution A spontaneous national uprising that began 12 days before in Hungary is viciously crushed by Soviet tanks and … A student demonstration in Budapest in support of Gomułka, asking for similar reforms in Hungary, was one of the events that sparked the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Crowds often took radical action, which often resulted in unrest on the streets and clashes with police and other law enforcement agencies. [3]:446–448, In February 1956, following the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev delivered the Secret Speech. The demonstrations were suppressed but they did afford reformist Communists the opportunity to advance an agenda that included significant concessions to … With the more exotic visitors, Poles also socialised in private apartments all around the city. The 1956 Hungarian Revolution is the third in the "National Security Archive Cold War Reader" series published by Central European University Press. The negotiations were tense; both Polish and Soviet troops were put on alert and engaged in "manoeuvres" that were used as thinly-veiled threats. In February 1956 Khrushchev denounced Stalin in a “secret speech” that quickly became public and sent shock waves throughout the Communist world. Among them was cardinal Stefan Wyszyński. Some social scientists term it the Polish October Revolution, which was less dramatic than the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 but may have had an even deeper impact on the Eastern Bloc and on the Soviet Union's relationship to its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe. 1956 Polish and Hungarian Crises The uprising began in Hungary as a spontaneous nationwide revolt against the People's Republic of Hungary and its Soviet-imposed policies, while in Poland similar political uprisings began in October 1956. [citation needed]. Wages were raised by 50%, and economic and political change was promised. "The defection of Jozef Swiatlo and the Search for Jewish Scapegoats in the Polish United Workers' Party, 1953–1954", "Notes from the Minutes of the CPSU CC Presidium Meeting with Satellite Leaders, 24 October 1956", "United Nations report of the Special Committee on the problem of Hungary", Północna Grupa Wojsk Armii Radzieckiej w Polsce w latach 1945-1956. In 1968, the Polish Communist party declared thousands of Jews enemies of the state and forced them to leave Poland. [7], Gomułka, in his public speeches, criticized the hardships of Stalinism and promised reforms to democratize the country; this was received with much enthusiasm by Polish society. Poles, Germans, Hungarians, Czechs and others from the Communist bloc actively socialised with one another. Corrections? The death of Joseph Stalin in 1953 and the resulting destalinization and the Khrushchev Thaw prompted debates about fundamental issues throughout the entire Eastern Bloc. A new Party Congress was demanded, as were a greater role for the Sejm and a guarantee of personal liberties. On November 4, 1956, Soviet tanks rolled into Budapest to crush, once and for all, the national uprising. Starting with the June 28 general strike in Poznan, the Polish and Hungarian workers launched a general revolutionary uprising against the rule of the Kremlin bureaucracy. Poznański Czerwiec 1956 r. – straty osobowe i ich analiza", Wydawnictwo Comandor, Warszawa 2006, Dallin, Alexander. [2][16] The Polish leadership made it clear that the face of communism had to become more nationalised and that the Soviets could no longer directly control the Polish people. [16][17], Eventually, when Khrushchev was reassured that Gomułka would not alter the basic foundations of Polish communism, he withdrew the invasion threat and agreed to compromise, and Gomułka was confirmed in his new position. They demanded the return of the eastern territories, an explanation for the Katyn massacre and the elimination of the Russian language from the educational curriculum. Posted by Miss Cust at 10:48 No comments: Email This BlogThis! Brandishing slogan-laden banners demanding bread and freedom, 30,000 demonstrators marched through the city. [5][12][13], The Poznań protests, although the largest, were not unique in Poland, where social protest resumed its fury that autumn. 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