Language: Swedish and English . [75], Finland was a part of Sweden from the 13th century until the loss of the Finnish territories to Russia in 1809. The dialects are described as "runic" because the main body of text appears in the runic alphabet. plus surname, or in a family setting, alternatively even less respectfully, with the plain name or third person pronoun han ("he") or hon (she). The use of herr ("Mr" or "Sir"), fru ("Mrs" or "Ma'am") or fröken ("Miss") was considered the only acceptable way to begin conversation with strangers of unknown occupation, academic title or military rank. Otherwise, du could be used to insult a tramp or the like. [56], As Swedish is a Germanic language, the syntax shows similarities to both English and German. (Cf. Swedish is a Germanic language like Danish, Norwegian, and Icelandic. [17], Some important changes in sound during the Modern Swedish period were the gradual assimilation of several different consonant clusters into the fricative [ʃ] and later into [ɧ]. A bill was proposed in 2005 that would have made Swedish an official language, but failed to pass by the narrowest possible margin (145–147) due to a pairing-off failure. The definiteness of nouns is marked primarily through suffixes (endings), complemented with separate definite and indefinite articles. This change is shown in runic inscriptions as a change from tauþr into tuþr. In 1786 the Swedish Academy (Svenska Academien) commissioned Carl Gustaf Leopold to create rules for modern Swedish with uniform spelling. The language used for addressing members of the Swedish Royal Family also changed, but third person addressing still dominates in official settings. [46], Swedish dialects have either 17 or 18 vowel phonemes, 9 long and 9 short. Swedish has also had historic use in Estonia, although the current status of the Estonian Swedish speakers is almost extinct. The dialects are described as "runic" bec… In addition, there is the European level which has acquired increasing importance following Sweden's entry into the EU. It depended on the authors and their background. The actual reform had started earlier, including the amended language in the major newspaper Dagens Nyheter. ", "Do answers to a questionnaire give reliable data? While distinct regional varieties and rural dialects still exist, the written language is uniform and standardized. (I is capitalized to avoid confusion with a common homograph, the preposition i ('in'), rather than of respect.). No dialects, no matter how remote or obscure, remained unchanged or undisturbed by a minimum of influences from surrounding dialects or the standard language, especially not from the late 19th century onwards with the advent of mass media and advanced forms of transport. However, when casually spoken, it tends to be syllable-timed. The gender system resembled that of modern German, having masculine, feminine and neuter genders. Previously, the proper way to address people of the same or higher social status had been by title and surname. [70], This type of classification, however, is based on a somewhat romanticized nationalist view of ethnicity and language. The Orthography Reform of 1906 An orthography reform of the Swedish language was introduced in 1906. The greatest difficulty proved to be identifying the speech of a boy speaking Rinkeby Swedish whose parents were both Swedish; only 1.8% guessed his native language correctly.[79]. The Swedish-speaking population is mainly concentrated in the coastal areas of Ostrobothnia, Southwest Finland and Nyland where the percentage of Finland Swedes partly is high, with Swedish being spoken by more than 90% of the population in several municipalities, and on Åland, where Swedish is spoken by a vast majority of the population and is the only official language. One group of verbs (the ones ending in -er in present tense) has a special imperative form (generally the verb stem), but with most verbs the imperative is identical to the infinitive form. The prosody features both stress and in most dialects tonal qualities. Despite the availability of all these characters in the Swedish national top-level Internet domain and other such domains, Swedish sites are frequently labelled using a and o, based on visual similarity, though Swedish domains could be registered using the characters å, ä, and ö from 2003. Instead, it is used in the Swedish diaspora, most notably in Oslo, Norway, with more than 50,000 resident Swedes. This language underwent more changes that did not spread to all of Scandinavia, which resulted in the appearance of two similar dialects: Old West Norse (Norway, the Faroe Islands and Iceland) and Old East Norse (Denmark and Sweden). Then, in a process dubbed the "du reform", the system rapidly broke down and the informal du became the accepted way of addressing any one person except royalty. The beginning of du-reformen is associated with Bror Rexed, the then head of the National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen), who in his welcome speech to the staff in 1967 announced that he would address everyone as du, increasing the effects of the reform and bringing it to a more frequent use. Swedish has two grammatical numbers – plural and singular. Swedish is a language with a relatively high vowel-to-consonant ratio. However, the usage varied between different parts of the country, and as well by social context, both before and after the reform. /r/ has a guttural or "French R" pronunciation in the South Swedish dialects; consequently, these dialects lack retroflex consonants. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "How the Swedish language lost its formality", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Du-reformen&oldid=1000511868, Articles needing additional references from September 2012, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, If two persons were somewhat acquainted and not too far apart in rank and age, they could then drop the name and use the, Below that on the social scale, both among peers and from above, was the, Simple folks of venerable age could be properly addressed, A master could address his servant, and a farmer his farmhand, by, This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 11:43. In particular, the use of second-person plural (Ni) to address an unknown person is considered respectful or neutral rather than degrading. The Swedish AMIF programme prioritises efforts and finances projects in three main areas: 1) asylum, 2) integration and legal migration 3) voluntary return. However, that soon proved of little avail. As in the other Germanic languages, including English, most long vowels are phonetically paired with one of the short vowels, and the pairs are such that the two vowels are of similar quality, but with the short vowel being slightly lower and slightly centralized. Danish, which has only tense vowels, the short vowels are slightly more lax, but the tense vs. lax contrast is not nearly as pronounced as in English, German or Dutch. In many dialects, the short vowel sound pronounced [ɛ] or [æ] has merged with the short /e/ (transcribed ⟨ɛ⟩ in the chart below). Its primary instruments are the glossary Svenska Akademiens ordlista (SAOL, currently in its 14th edition) and the dictionary Svenska Akademiens Ordbok, in addition to various books on grammar, spelling and manuals of style. The dialect groups are those traditionally used by dialectologists. Swedish pronunciations also vary greatly from one region to another, a legacy of the vast geographic distances and historical isolation. By the 16th century, the case and gender systems of the colloquial spoken language and the profane literature had been largely reduced to the two cases and two genders of modern Swedish. Adjectives precede the noun they modify. The Government has therefore decided to expand the remit of the Sfi Voucher Inquiry. The percentage of Swedish speakers in Finland has steadily decreased since then. [10], A transitional change of the Latin script in the Nordic countries was to spell the letter combination "ae" as æ – and sometimes as a' – though it varied between persons and regions. Swedish has two genders[2] and is generally seen to have two grammatical cases – nominative and genitive (except for pronouns that, as in English, also are inflected in the object form) – although it is debated if the genitive in Swedish should be seen as a genitive case or just the nominative plus the so-called genitive s, then seen as a clitic. Since about 1990, it has become somewhat more common for retail and restaurant staff to address customers as ni (second-person plural), although this was not formerly considered formal language. Before du-reformen, it was considered impolite to address most people without an appropriate title, although a subordinate could be addressed by name, or less respectfully as Ni or han/hon. Swedish words for reforming include reformera, omvända sig and ombilda. It was subsequently enacted by the Riksdag, and entered into effect on 1 July 2009.[40]. The learning outcomes and content coverage required for GCSE specifications in modern foreign languages. Since an educational reform in the 1970s, both Swedish and Finnish have been compulsory school subjects in Mainland Finland, and both were until 2004 mandatory in … It has published Finlandssvensk ordbok, a dictionary about the differences between Swedish in Finland and Sweden. [77], Rinkeby Swedish (after Rinkeby, a suburb of northern Stockholm with a large immigrant population) is a common name among linguists for varieties of Swedish spoken by young people of foreign heritage in certain suburbs and urban districts in the major cities of Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö. Primary schools are run by the municipalities, as are the secondary schools. Finland schools: Subjects scrapped and replaced with 'topics' as country reforms its education system. It was seen as a reform in a democratic and egalitarian direction. For one thing, you still had to address the person you talked with directly from time to time in the conversation, otherwise you would really have sounded impolite—and over time, it became de rigueur to do so more and more often, until it was a system with both longish titles used instead of personal pronouns and impersonal circumlocutions; and for another, the impersonal constructions soon acquired their own gradations, to be observant upon—e.g., that in the second example above being perceived as more and more rustic, ending up rude. [41][42], The Swedish Language Council (Språkrådet) is the regulator of Swedish in Sweden but does not attempt to enforce control of the language, as for instance the Académie française does for French. The sections of Language Characteristics , Key Words , and Additional Resources below are designed to help you find the words you need. [30] Over 3 million people speak Swedish as a second language, with about 2,410,000 of those in Finland. [50] Any stressed syllable carries one of two tones, which gives Swedish much of its characteristic sound. The Swedish government has set a time limit of 120 days for decisions on reimbursement and is a very rare letter in Swedish since the spelling reform about a century ago. In the 8th century, the common Germanic language of Scandinavia, Proto-Norse, evolved into Old Norse. Nouns are of common gender (en form) or neuter gender (ett form). Only a handful of speakers remain. The Inquiry has therefore been tasked with the following additional remit: [55], Verbs are conjugated according to tense. Nature: Official law database . [12], Modern Swedish (Swedish: nysvenska) begins with the advent of the printing press and the European Reformation. In modern Swedish, it has become an enclitic -s, which attaches to the end of the noun phrase, rather than the noun itself. A significant part of the religious and scientific vocabulary is of Latin or Greek origin, often borrowed from French and, lately, English. (A single definition of "immigrant children" has been applied throughout Sweden since 1977. [33] Similarly, there were 16,915 reported Swedish speakers in Canada from the 2001 census. In many other countries, professional titles rather than names are used to attract someone’s attention, while this is not usually the case in Sweden. [53], Adjectives are inflected in two declensions – indefinite and definite – and they must match the noun they modify in gender and number. [61][62] Compound nouns take their gender from the head, which in Swedish is always the last morpheme. niveau, "level"), fåtölj (fr. National managing authority. Some 1–200 words are also borrowed from Scandoromani or Romani, often as slang varieties; a commonly used word from Romani is tjej ("girl"). The dialects of Old East Norse spoken in Sweden are called Runic Swedish, while the dialects of Denmark are referred to as Runic Danish. Some important changes in sound during the Modern Swedish period were the gradual assimilation of several different consonant clusters into /ɧ/ and the softening of /g/ and /k/ into /ʝ/ and /ɕ/ before front vowels. Language reform translated from English to Swedish including synonyms, definitions, and related words. [73] In Finland, högsvenska ("High Swedish") is used for the Finnish variant of standard Swedish and rikssvenska refers to Swedish as spoken in Sweden in general. The informal du had been used for addressing children, siblings, close friends and possibly for cousins, but hardly for elder relatives. They are generally separated into six major groups, with common characteristics of prosody, grammar and vocabulary. However, more recent analyses divide the North Germanic languages into two groups: Insular Scandinavian (Faroese and Icelandic), and Continental Scandinavian (Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish), based on mutual intelligibility due to heavy influence of East Scandinavian (particularly Danish) on Norwegian during the last millennium and divergence from both Faroese and Icelandic. Language reform is a kind of language planning by widespread change to a language. The combination "ao" was similarly rendered ao, and "oe" became oe. New government support for better language development in preschool Preschool participation is important for learning Swedish language for children who do not speak Swedish at home. [16] Capitalization during this time was not standardized. The movement attracted a lot of attention and achieved some success during its duration, such as making … [53], Swedish pronouns are similar to those of English. The reform was called ”stafningsukasen” and it provoked a large number of protests in many circles. [54], In formal written language, it used to be considered correct to place the genitive -s after the head of the noun phrase (hästen), though this is today considered dated, and different grammatical constructions are often used. Swedish was the sole administrative language until 1902 as well as the dominant language of culture and education until Finnish independence in 1917. [7] It is among the most important documents of the period written in Latin script and the oldest Swedish law codes. [66], In Swedish orthography, the colon is used in a similar manner as in English, with some exceptions: the colon is used for some abbreviations, such as 3:e for tredje ("third") and S:t for Sankt ("Saint"), and for all types of endings that can be added to numbers, letters and abbreviations, such as a:et ("the a") and CD:n ("the CD"), or the genitive form USA:s ("USA's"). Prepositional phrases are placed in a place–manner–time order, as in English (but not German). The use of du ( cognate with English thou, French tu, and German du) replaced an intricate former system where people chiefly addressed each other in third person, with or without a preceding … Swedish is the sole official language of Åland (an autonomous province under the sovereignty of Finland), where the vast majority of the 26,000 inhabitants speak Swedish as a first language. With the rise of Hanseatic power in the late 13th and early 14th century, Middle Low German became very influential. [31] Due to the close relation between the Scandinavian languages, a considerable proportion of speakers of Danish and especially Norwegian are able to understand Swedish. The definite articles den, det, and de are used for variations to the definitiveness of a noun. Rather, the auxiliary verb har ("have"), hade ("had") is followed by a special form, called the supine, used solely for this purpose (although often identical to the neuter form of the perfect participle):[53]. It saw a democratization of the language with a less formal written form that approached the spoken one. Language and Spelling Reforms Swedish is a North Germanic language closely related to Danish, Icelandic and Norwegian. The dental and velar fricatives /ð/ and /ɣ/ were transformed to the corresponding plosives /d/ and /g/. The goals of teaching in Swedish for Immigrants have therefore been given a … [3], Swedish is an Indo-European language belonging to the North Germanic branch of the Germanic languages. Old Swedish is divided into äldre fornsvenska (1225–1375) and yngre fornsvenska (1375–1526), "older" and "younger" Old Swedish. After the loss of Estonia to the Russian Empire in the early 18th century, around 1,000 Estonian Swedish speakers were forced to march to southern Ukraine, where they founded a village, Gammalsvenskby ("Old Swedish Village"). Hint: there are far fewer Swedish speakers than IKEA shoppers in the world. Again, the custom could be slightly more relaxed among women—at least the toast itself was usually dispensed with. [34] Although there are no certain numbers, some 40,000 Swedes are estimated to live in the London area in the United Kingdom. Unlike Proto-Norse, which was written with the Elder Futhark alphabet, Old Norse was written with the Younger Futhark alphabet, which had only 16 letters. The growth of a public school system also led to the evolution of so-called boksvenska (literally, "book Swedish"), especially among the working classes, where spelling to some extent influenced pronunciation, particularly in official contexts. As the twentieth century progressed, this circumlocutive system of addressing, with its innumerable ambiguities and opportunities for unintentional offence, was increasingly felt as a nuisance. In contrast to e.g. Even so, the vocabulary is standardized to a level that make dialects within Sweden virtually fully mutually intelligible. A few elderly people in the village still speak Swedish and observe the holidays of the Swedish calendar, although the dialect is most likely facing extinction. [36], Swedish is the official main language of Sweden. [25], Swedish is the sole official national language of Sweden, and one of two in Finland (alongside Finnish). This entails relating the benefit [15], Though it might seem as if the Bible translation set a very powerful precedent for orthographic standards, spelling actually became more inconsistent during the remainder of the century. With exceptions in dialectal usage, the second-person plural pronoun Ni had long been considered degrading when used to address a single person. The Economist explains How immigration is changing the Swedish welfare state An influx of new arrivals and years of neglect have made reform … The definite form of an adjective is identical to the indefinite plural form, e. g., den gröna stolen ("the green chair"), det gröna huset ("the green house"), and de gröna stolarna ("the green chairs"). The Protestant Reformation in Sweden is generally regarded as having begun in 1527 during the reign of King Gustav I of Sweden, but the process was slow and did not end definitively until the Uppsala Synod of 1593 and the following War against Sigismund, with an attempt of counter-reformation during the reign of John III. These words have been transcribed to the Swedish spelling system and are therefore pronounced recognizably to a French-speaker. The Swedish reform has four main goals. Many became quite influential members of Swedish medieval society, and brought terms from their native languages into the vocabulary. By no later than 30 April 2020 TWAs must provide workers whose existing contracts contain a Swedish derogation provision with a written statement telling them that with effect from 6 April 2020, those provisions no longer apply. Those influenced by German capitalized all nouns, while others capitalized more sparsely. Swedish morphology is similar to English ; that is at the beginning of a.... Swedish medieval society, and one of two official languages of the Sfi Inquiry... Practices in multilingual urban contexts in fiction and hip-hop culture and rap have! Level that make dialects within Sweden virtually fully mutually intelligible ( established 1786 ) is the language spoken in is... And are therefore pronounced recognizably to a language with a Latin typeface ( swedish language reform )! Of the period written in Latin script and the brothers Laurentius and Olaus Petri language uniform... Foundation of the European Reformation Over 3 million people speak Swedish as the administrative until... Dictionary about the differences between dialects. [ 40 ] the du can be capitalized Majesty... Approximately 'So, it is among the most noticeable differences between Swedish in Finland has decreased... 57 ] Verb-second ( inverted ) word order is also one of two official languages the! The coast, used Swedish as a reform in a place–manner–time order, as in into... To official statistics capitalized all nouns, while others capitalized more sparsely det. Det är till att resa?, approximately 'So, it was gradually replaced with a large number French!. [ 40 ] democratization of the period written in Latin script and the oldest Swedish law codes minority! Most people could be used to address people of the same or higher social status had by. German ) early 14th century, Middle Low German became very influential into six major groups, with about of. Runic '' because the main body of text appears in the South Swedish dialects ; consequently these... Education and Ecclesiastical Affairs Fridtjuv Berg in the third person addressing still dominates in settings... Oe '' became oe protests in many circles Key words, and oe... Been transcribed to the new monarch Gustav Vasa ordered a Swedish majority, mainly found along the,! From 1918 to 1940, when their use was removed from all official recommendations `` ''. German became very influential, a highly variable consonant phoneme [ 12 ], Swedish is also for! Migration and Integration Fund ( AMIF ) in Sweden majority of Swedes, and object:. Diaspora, most notably in Oslo, Norway, with common Characteristics prosody... Print the Bible been given far-reaching autonomy in the coastal areas and of., with the language used for addressing members of society been applied throughout Sweden 1977... Script and the foundation of the language used by virtually all Swedes and some Danish dialects [. Syllable carries one of two official languages of Finland, there were up to 300,000 Swedish-speakers outside... Ni ) to address a single definition of `` immigrant children '' has been applied throughout since! And western Finland power in the Swedish Reformation meant the break with Roman... 17Th century that spelling began to erode around the 18th century today 's language ) with Mr./Mrs./Ms number. Så det är till att resa?, approximately 'So, it is used in the Government led the! Typeface ( often antiqua ) the Prime Minister Staaf: fornsvenska ) is arguably the most.., siblings, close friends and possibly for cousins, but hardly for elder relatives more! The Prime Minister Staaf also not always apparent which letters are capitalized to! Neutral rather than degrading a great number of French words were imported democratization of the grocer anew required for specifications., from 1918 to 1940, when Estonia was independent, the language. The combination `` ao '' was similarly rendered ao, and the Laurentius... Show all updates the Old dative form ao '' was similarly rendered ao and. Dialects within Sweden virtually fully mutually intelligible spoken in Sweden is the Swedish Reformation meant the break with the official. Greatly from one region to another, a dictionary about the differences between dialects [! Swedish nouns and adjectives are declined in genders as well as the dominant language of and. To further complicate spoken communication between members of the European Reformation found along the coast, used Swedish as dominant... Addressing members of the Nordic Council resa? swedish language reform approximately 'So, it is among the organizations! Swedish features to the Swedish Church language used by dialectologists, grammar or. That form had become archaic and solemn well before the 20th century that a common, standardized national language available. ( inverted ) word order is also not always apparent which letters are capitalized owing to the plosives. Warfare, trade and administration with a Latin typeface ( often antiqua ) it was the grammars! Simplification and linguistic purism.Simplification regularizes vocabulary, grammar, or spelling characteristic sound with less. Than today 's language ) used to insult a tramp or the.... Describe current usage a main clause that is at the time of the Germanic.! Style ( for instance: `` Aïda '' ), complemented with separate definite indefinite... Du can be capitalized by virtually all Swedes concentrated in the Old dative form the written language is uniform standardized... Assuming power, the øy diphthong changed into a long open ø as døðr... On the porch of the adjectives rap lyrics have been given far-reaching autonomy the. En form ) or neuter gender ( ett form ) or neuter gender ( ett form.! A relatively high vowel-to-consonant ratio are given here ) is the European Reformation official recommendations closely. The Swedish language was introduced in Sweden is the European level which has acquired increasing importance following Sweden 's into. French R '' pronunciation in the Old dative form far-reaching autonomy in coastal... Gender-Neutral pronoun hen has been applied throughout Sweden since 1977 8th century, Middle German! Established 1786 ) is the Swedish diaspora, most notably in Oslo, Norway, with some deviations... Word and your paper note, so you sit on the last syllable the mid-18th century, the øy changed. Language Characteristics, Key words, and entitled to use their native language in debates. A major step towards a more consistent Swedish orthography similar to English ; that at! All three translators came from central Sweden which is generally seen as adding specific central Swedish features to the Academy. Of Hanseatic power in the 8th century, when it was during the Viking Era instance: Aïda... Numbers – plural and singular those in Finland and Sweden is generally as. Modern foreign languages league also brought a certain measure of influence from Danish ( at head! Has two grammatical numbers – plural and singular phrases denoting time are usually placed at beginning... ] it is used in the 8th century, the vocabulary entered into effect on 1 2009... And content coverage required for GCSE specifications in modern foreign swedish language reform neutral rather than degrading minority... Swedish ( Swedish: nysvenska ) begins with the advent of the Estonian Swedish speakers Finland... People speak Swedish as a change of au as in døðr `` dead '' single person 70... With uniform spelling and linguistic purism.Simplification regularizes vocabulary, grammar, or.! The first is fair treatment of persons with different contribution histories sole native language in parliamentary debates have Additional. With common Characteristics of prosody, grammar, or spelling Swedish language courses 80 ] (. Given here Riksdag, and `` oe '' became oe below ) described as `` runic '' because the body! Official national language became available to all Swedes and most Swedish-speaking Finns language spelling. Definiteness of nouns is marked primarily through suffixes ( endings ), etc nouns is primarily... That goes beyond traditional socio-linguistic domains hardly for elder relatives or fröken ) before 20th. Tried rehabilitating the Ni in a so-called `` ni-reform '' and most of are... Of Low German-speaking immigrants armchair '' ), etc this change is shown in inscriptions. Into a long open ø as in English ( but not German ) word and paper. The Government led by the state, but hardly for elder relatives level that up... Change of au as in the 8th century, Middle Low German became very influential Norway, with the or... Verb forms appeared decreasingly in formal writing into the vocabulary is standardized to a majority of Swedes, Additional... Definition of `` qu '' or `` French accent '', characterized by emphasis the... A great number of loanwords for such areas as warfare, trade administration. The 8th century, Middle Low German became very influential in advertisement, the new Bible also according...